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Action Research Proposal Outline

Parlindungan Pardede


Christian University of Indonesia

I. Introduction

A. Background

Reveal the real problems and show why it is urgent to solve them. Use factual data (obtained by researcher’s observation or quoted from valid references) to support the urgency of carrying out studies to solve the problem. Relevant results of previous researches are also good to write here.

B. Problem Statement

List 1 or 2 problems identified from the background in interrogative sentences.

C. Research Objectives

Write down the specific, clear and to the point statements of intended outcomes from the research to undertake. Do this transforming the questions in the problem statement section into positive form.

D. Research Significances

List what advantages could be expected from the research’s result to as many parties as possible, e.g. to students involved in the study, to teaching practice, to ELT theories, and to the researchers themselves.

E. Research Scope

In a paragraph, describe the exact area of the research, such as period of time, unit of analysis (e.g., policy, programs, activities, actual behaviors etc.). Keep in mind that those items should be in line with the title.

F. Operational Definition

Take some words from the title which you think could possibly be multi-interpreted by different readers (three to five terms will do) and define each of the words in accordance with the context of the study.


II. Review of Related Theories, Conceptual Framework and Hypothesis

A. Literature Review

Summarize relevant concepts provided by experts as references to the undertaken study.

In this section you need to cite from some external scientific works which will add credibility to your ideas. However, any time you cite from external materials, you are required to identify the sources in the form of systematic references. However, any time you cite from external materials, you are required to identify the sources in the form of systematic references. This identification will not only give credit to the ideas and work of other scientists (and thus, prevent plagiarism) but also provide the readers with access to these sources. To get a guidelines for doing this, see “Citing and Referencing in Research Papers.”

B. Conceptual Framework

In one to two paragraphs relate the background to the problems and show how action research to be conducted will hopefully provide solutions to the problems.

  1. C.  Hypothesis (optional)

State the hypothesis in the form of null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.

III. Research Methodology

  1. Research Method

Briefly but concisely describe (two paragraph will suffice) the research method to be used i.e. action research.

  1. Research Setting and Subjects Features

Explain where and how long the action research will be conducted. Include description of the students group (the students’ year/class level, male and female composition, their families’ economical background, level of related language skills mastery, and any other aspects relevant to the study.

  1. Research Variables

In this section, determine the variables that will provide answers to the problems. The variables can be (1) the ‘inputs’ related to the students, teachers, teaching materials, evaluation procedure, learning environments, etc.; (2) matters related to the teaching and learning process, such as classroom management, students learning strategies, teaching methods, etc.; or (3) ‘output’ variables, like students’ ability to apply skills they have studied, students’ willingness to initiate further learning, etc.

  1. Action Plan

In this section, describe the actions to be implemented, including the plan, action/implementation, observation, and reflection/analysis phases. The plan description may include the preparation of pre-test, lesson plan (teaching scenario), equipments preparation, and alternative solutions to be implemented. The action/ implementation description reveals the actions to be conducted, corrective action scenario, and the procedure of carrying out the action. The observation describes the procedure for collecting and interpreting the data. The description of reflection/analysis includes the data analysis procedure and the criteria and plan for conducting the next cycle.

  1. Data Collection Instrument and technique

In this section, describe how the data will be collected, including the specific technique, its procedure and the instruments for collecting data. If, for instance, the data will be collected using tests, describe the feature of the tests and how they will be administered. Do the same to questionnaire, observation and interview if they will also be used.

  1. Data Analysis Technique

Briefly but concisely describe the research data analysis technique to be used i.e. descriptive analysis and the statistical analysis (e.g. t-test)—if one will be used.

  1. Data Triangulation

Describe each of the data triangulation techniques to be used to guarantee the data validity. If, for instance, theoretical and time triangulation will be used, provide the rationale of employing them.

  1. Research Procedure

List the general steps of conducting the action research, beginning from the step of forming the research teamwork, asking permission from the school headmaster (if necessary), conducting the research, and writing the report.

  1. References

APA referencing style is recommended. As a guide, see Referencing Style for JET. To see an example of reference list, see “Citing and Referencing in Research Papers.”