Scientific Text Revision Exercise (2)
After studying Scientific Text Revision Exercise (1), please revise the following text (taken from the literature review section of your mid term assignment). Make sure you include all necessary points to revise. Write down your final (revised) text in the reply section below. Deadline: Monday, May 12, 2014. Good luck!
The Nature of Motivation
Motivation is all the reasons behind why we behave as we do and revolves around intentionally. We are all motivated by many different things. It is influenced by our past, present and the future. Motivation is the light for learning. Motivation is what moves us to action: why we start, go on with or stop an activity; giving a motive to do something; internal processes and external incentives that spur us to satisfy a need; the response we make to challenges and threats in situations where success or failure is possible, the marshaling or enthusiasm, confidence and persistence. Chossri & Intharaksa (2011) accentuated that motivation means the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language which leads to a conscious decision to act, and which gives rise to a period of sustained intellectual and/or physical effort in order to attain previous set goals (p.4). Garcia, as cited in Gardner and Lambert’s (1972) theory that research has been reduced to the identification of two motivational orientation or reasons for studying the language, namely integrative and instrumental orientations (p.30). Thus, students’ motivation refers to their desire to achieve goal with two motivational orientations such as integrative and instrumental orientations.
Integrative and instrumental motivation show obvious goals of learners in language learning and is widely accepted and studied (Jehdo, 2009). According to Choosri & Intharaksa (2011) integrative motivation refers to a desire to learn the second language in order to have contact with and perhaps to become similar valued members of that the second language community. And integrative orientation is the ability to relate to the language of a community different than yours. It further represents an interchange between self-concept, attitudes, and motivation. In other words, integratively motivated learners are mainly interested in the second language community and its culture (Garcia, 2007). Then, motivation has also been identified as the learner’s orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language. It is thought that students who are most successful when learning a target language are those who like the people that speak the language, admire the culture and have a desire to become familiar with or even integrate into the society in which the language is used. Therefore, integrative motivation refers to a desire to learn the second language with the goal for target community and score in the community.
Instrumental motivation refers to a desire to achieve proficiency in a new language for some practical goals; for example, passing an examination, or furthering career opportunities (Choosri & Intharaksa, 2011). Garcia (2007) said that instrumental orientation allows the learner to gain something from acquiring the language. Such as in the case of acquiring a job or enhancing one’s education. Instrumentally motivated learners are concerned with success in general language skills such as grammar and vocabulary. Instrumentally motivated learners are less likely to succeed in communication compared with integratively motivated learners who tend to be more successful in aural-oral proficiency. Then, according Holt, (as cited by Hudson, 2001) instrumental motivation is generally characterized by the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language. With instrumental motivation the purpose of language acquisition is more utilitarian, such as meeting the requirements for school or university graduation, applying for a job, requesting higher pay based on language ability, reading technical material, translation work or achieving higher social status. Instrumental motivation is often characteristic of second language acquisition, where little or no social integration of the learner into a community using the target language takes place, or in some instances is even desired. It could be conclude that Instrumental motivation refers to a desire to achieve or get some practical purpose, such as future study, career, and score.